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Pinguicula cyclosecta Casper (1963)

Based on herbarium specimen that were collected in 1948 in the mountain range Sierra Madre Orriental in the southeastern part of the Mexican state of Nuevo León, the German botanist S. Jost Casper described  in 1963 a new species that he named Pinguicula cyclosecta. The epithet "cyclosecta" refers to the circular outline of the corolla lobes. In the mean time additional locations of P. cyclosecta have been found in the Sierra Madre Oriental in  the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas as well as in the Sierra de San Carlos, an isolated mountain range in the state of Tamaulipas. Plants grow on vertical calcareous cliffs in pine-oak forests at elevations between 950 and 2200 m.

P. alpina inhabits regions of the Northern hemisphere. It can be found in subarctic and arctic areas from Scandinavia over Siberia into Northern Kamchatka Peninsula, where plants grow from sea level up to 1100 m above sea level. It inhabits also mountainous areas in Europe (Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathians) and in Asia (Himalayas, mountain range of Northern China and Mongolia). In the Himalayas specimen have been found at altitudes of 4100 m a.s.l. Recently P. alpina was also found in the arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

P. alpina belongs to the temperate heterophyllous growth type. During the cold winter months the plants overwinter as hibernaculum. Often already in early autumn the hibernaculum is formed. In contrast to the other temperate species the yellow-white, fleshy, up to 5 cm long roots do not die over winter. In springtime (depending on the altitude plants are growing) first summer leaves are formed. The summer rosette forms only one set of summer leaves. The summer rosette consists of 5-8 elliptic-oblong to lanceolate-oblong leaves,  that are 2,5 to 4,5 cm (sometimes 6 cm) long and having a pointed to obtuse tip. While at shady locations the margin of the leaves is only moderately involute, at more sunny locations the margin is strongly involute with the margins almost touching. Leaf colour of the upper surface varies between green and rarely red-brown), the lower side of the leaves show an intense brown-red coloration when exposed to direct sunlight. The upper surface is densely covered with glandular hairs.

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A continuous cultivation of P. alpina under central European lowland conditions is only possible outside, as in greenhouses, that are heated to stay frost free over winter, there is a risk that plants start producing summer leaves already in winter when temperatures raise significantly during sunny conditions. Only specimen originated from low altitude populations of Central Europe (about 400-600 m above sea level) that are adapted to more warmer growing conditions seem to tolerate conditions of winter temperatures that do not get lower than 5 °C during night. It is also important to prevent any root disturbances e.g. caused by fungus infection or insects feeding on the roots during dormancy, as then plants often die. Cultivation of plants in organic soil, in mosses or in a coarse limestone-peat mix has shown good results. Also the use of pure vermiculite as substrate is possible. The roots should be watered from above from time to time with water rich in oxygen. As P. alpina does not form daughter buds, the only natural way of propagation is by seeds.