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Pinguicula calderoniae Zamudio (2001)

During studies of the flora and fauna of the biosphere reserve Sierra Gorda located in the border area of the two Mexican states of San Luis Potosí and Querétaro, a new butterwort species was found and described by the Mexican botanist Sergio Zamudio, which he named P. calderoniae. This species occurs in a very restricted area between 2200 and 2300 m a.s.l. Until today this species is only known from the surrounding cliffs of the 2 plains Llano Chiquito and Llano del Conejo.

The plants do occur in a tropical montane cloud forest (bosque mesófilo de montaña). During the rainy season there is regular rainfall, while during the dry season, there are very few precipitations, so the plants get their humidity from the clouds and fogs that do form in these mountain plains. P. calderoniae grows on vertical calcareous cliffs, where the plants can be found either in moss or in eroded rock material in crevices. P. calderoniae seems to divide easily, therefore often several plants grow together at the same spot.  In this higher mountain regions in winter also frosts and snow do occur regularly, therefore the species needs to be frost resistant to a certain degree.

P_calderoniae Nahaufnahme SommerblätterP_calderoniae Nahaufnahme Sommerblätter

P. calderoniae is a tropical heterophyllous species. The winter rosette has an onion like appearance and consists of up to 30 leaves. The winter leaves are succulent, up to 1,5 cm long, pointed and show a dark red to brown-red colour. Often the winter rosettes are growing below the surface. In spring the plants form long lanceolate summer leaves. The size is spectacular as they can reach up ton 25 cm in length. Depending if the plants are exposed to direct sunlight or not, the leaf colour is pure green or reddish. An indivudual plant does produce only 5 to 6 summer leaves. Then at the end of August the plants begin to form winter leaves again. 

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The flowering period is from June to mid of August. P. calderoniae does form 1 to 3 flowers per season  that occur from the summer rosette. The flower is two-lipped and the colour of the corolla, corolla tube and the spur is red-purple. Including the spur the flower can reach a size of 3,5 cm. The corolla tube is, similar as with  P. crassifolia, funnel shaped and up to 1 cm long. The spur is with its up tp 1,6 cm also pretty long for the genus Pinguicula.

For a successful cultivation of P. calderoniae a calcareous substrate does not seem to be mandatory, as my experiences with vermiculite (that is normally pH neutral) is also very positive. The use of more organic substrates is also possible, but then you should be precautious that the substrate doesn't stay to wet, as this may cause root rotting. In winter it is recommended to keep the plants dry or only moist.